From the 1980s until 2008, rises in the transportation of goods mirrored overall economic growth, with 75 per cent of movement occurring in Europe. The recession brought a decline of ten to 12 per cent in early 2009, but this has stabilised and by 2011, experts anticipate transportation levels will return to 2008 levels.
Together with transportation volumes, improved availability of online networks is also contributing to traceability and visibility expectations. In the first half of 2010, more than 315 million smart phones were sold, up 50 per cent on 2009 levels.
Another trend is the changing expectation for traceability among consumers who want information on the origin of their products, constituent raw materials and product components. And they expect better overall product quality as well. Simply having products available to buy is no longer enough as discerning consumers look ‘behind the brand’ to make their purchasing decisions.
Environmental concerns have also influenced companies to optimise their use of resources in response to social expectations. Green initiatives seeking to improve utilisation of warehouse, freezer and truck space are widespread, spurred by both a desire to do good and cut operational costs.
For suppliers, there is a demand for traceability to drive logistics efficiency, quality and visibility. The availability of ‘always on-line’ information creates an early warning system to reduce out-of-stocks, shrinkage or delivery problems and more targeted recalls.
Overall, the emphasis on improving the customer experience using technology whilst seeking to cut operational costs is a trend occurring across Europe. Many retailers have already invested in self-service scanning, self-checkout, smart shelf labeling or queue busting systems.From supply chain to demand pull network
Increasing customer influence has transformed the traditional supply chain (source-make-deliver-buy) model from a push channel to a pull channel with the customer firmly in control. In the retail sector, companies like Nike are responding by allowing customers to customise shoes.
This re-emphasises the right product, right place, right time, right price mix. Balance requires a dynamic interaction between information and physical flows to ensure customer demands are met with just the right amount of stock. Decisions over which Storytechnology to use e.g. RFID, traditional barcodes or imaging, are mostly driven by a cost/benefit analysis and ease of integration to existing systems. The examples below highlight why visibility is important for a networked supply chain:Flexibility
No longer can goods only be returned to the store of purchase. Now customers can choose to buy online and collect from a local store, or buy from one store, return to another or a repair centre or the web.Forecasting
This can be an expensive activity and will not necessarily yield the corresponding value invested, especially for smaller retailers with correspondingly smaller amounts of capital tied up in stock. Regardless of a retailer’s size, data accuracy remains the biggest issue. Whilst technology is driving better choice of the correct algorithms to produce a more reliable forecast, performance can only be as good as the underlying data. As an alternative to planning from forecasts, ‘visible’ networks can be built based on the ability to supply according to previous activity - creating a 100 per cent demand driven supply network.
For example, Vendor Managed Inventory systems (VMIs) are straightforward to introduce whereby the vendor is completely responsible for the product, has direct access to the retailer’s systems to monitor sales or stock levels and then creates replenishment orders based on demand, stock levels and existing inbound purchase orders. Because the vendor is provided with direct access to real time data generated via picking or replenishment requests, which are in turn triggered by store sales, this can be a more accurate method. Working in this way can reduce inventory levels and eliminate out of stocks, significantly reducing costs for the retailer. In addition, it offers additional benefits to both stakeholders because the retailer does not need to allocate resources to manage merchandise as it is handled by the vendor, who in turn, benefits from having direct access to valuable information which allows them to smooth their own supply chain, thus further reducing costs.Manufacturer driven vs. customer driven promotions
Many manufacturers are increasingly operating retailer and customer led promotions in which the promotion is tailored according to the preferences or shopping habits of the local clientele. And in return for co-operating and supplying the manufacturer with sales data, the retailer benefits with discounted stock prices. Alternatively, manufacturer and retailer work in partnership based on anticipated demand. So for example, after Kate Middleton wore a navy dress as her engagement to Prince William was announced, clothing suppliers to 8Tesco were fast to react with a near identical garment available in their stores within days. Achieving this needs the supply chain to be very tightly integrated between manufacturer and retailer but when the collaboration works well, there is a much greater likelihood of delivering value for all stakeholders.Focusing on adding value to customers vs. straight cost-reduction
Cutting costs used to be the motivation behind investment in the supply chain whereas in the future, the emphasis needs to be on delivering added value to specific customer groups. For instance, retailers are starting to understand that customers buying premium products will value traceability information verifying the origin and quality of their goods above other customers just looking for the lowest cost products.Building ‘always on-line’ visible supply networks
Traditional barcodes are still used for identification of products but slowly, interest in serialised packaging is creating applications for the 2D barcode. To reduce time to market, many retailers in Europe have implemented voice picking and are expanding their use of voice directed working in the warehouse. And smaller, more specialised retailers are following suit, but seeking ‘out of the-box’ voice solutions that are quick to implement and show an investment payback.
Unlike voice, RFID is still not a mass-market technology and among luxury retailers, is mainly used for tracking returnable assets or to prevent counterfeiting. Internet shopping has brought increased demand for proof of delivery systems, and now, a newer market for ‘payment on delivery’ alternatives. Some retailers have also created innovative applications for RFID in the store - Prada for instance has created an RFID based personal shopping experience in which customers in the fitting rooms can see the garments they have selected being modelled on the catwalk. The RFID tags on each garment simply trigger the automatic selection of different pre-loaded videos – an ingenious yet simple idea, which is proving very effective.
In the end, picking a technology is the easy part. More challenging is enabling the retailers, suppliers and other network members to use technology to operate effective supply chain networks.Gerrit-Jan Steenbergen
Gerrit-Jan Steenbergen is VP of Zetes Innovation Centre in Brussels, where he leads the company’s research and development programme across Zetes centres of excellence in voice technology, image capture and RFID. With over 15 years of business and ICT experience managing complex system developments and global, multi-cultural projects and roll-outs, Gerrit-Jan is a regular lecturer and author of publications including ‘The Cost and Savings of Auto-ID’ and ‘More Quality’.
Contact GJ directly at: Gj.firstname.lastname@example.orgZetes Group
Zetes is a leading pan-European company specialising in solutions and services for Automatic Identification of Goods and People (Goods ID and People ID). The company’s solutions use both emerging and mature technologies (barcode, voice recognition, RFID, smartcards and biometrics) with “Solution Architecture Frameworks”. Zetes’ solutions have been implemented in over 14 countries across a range of business sectors, including production, transport, logistics, distribution, healthcare, finance, telecommunications and public services.
For further information visit: www.zetes.co.uk